What Is A Pump Used For?

A Pump Is A Machine To Move Fluid From A Low Energy Level (Low Elevation Level, Low Pressure Level, Etc.) To A Higher Energy Level (Higher Elevation Level, Higher Pressure Level, Etc.)

Example: Pump For: Flood Control, Water Supply, Irrigation, Chemical/Acid, Chemical Dosing/Metering/Injection, Hydrocarbon, Sludge, Slurry, Molasses, Magma, Massequite, Marine, Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Marine Fuel, Etc.

What Are Factors That Need To Be Considered In Selecting A Pump?

Selecting the right pump for an application involves considering a variety of factors to ensure optimal performance, efficiency, and longevity. Here are the key factors to consider:

1. Type of Fluid

  • Viscosity: High-viscosity fluids require pumps designed to handle thicker substances.
  • Corrosiveness: Corrosive fluids necessitate pumps made from resistant materials like stainless steel or certain plastics.
  • Temperature: Fluid temperature can affect pump material and design choice.

2. Flow Rate

  • Required Flow Rate: Determine the volume of fluid that needs to be moved within a specific time frame (e.g., gallons per minute or liters per hour).
  • Variable Flow: Consider if the flow rate needs to be adjustable or if it will remain constant.

3. Head (Pressure) Requirements

  • Total Head: The total height the pump needs to move the fluid, including any friction losses in the system.
  • Suction Head: The height difference between the fluid source and the pump.
  • Discharge Head: The height difference between the pump and the fluid destination.

4. System Design

  • Pipe Size and Layout: Pipe diameter, length, and configuration can affect pump selection due to friction losses.
  • Elevation Changes: Significant elevation changes between the fluid source and destination can impact the required pump capacity.

5. Pump Type

  • Centrifugal Pumps: Suitable for low-viscosity fluids and high flow rates with low pressure.
  • Positive Displacement Pumps: Better for high-viscosity fluids and applications requiring consistent flow regardless of pressure.

6. Power Source

  • Electric: Common and suitable for many applications but requires access to electricity.
  • Diesel or Gasoline: Useful for remote locations without electrical access.
  • Manual or Solar: For small-scale or off-grid applications.

7. Efficiency and Energy Consumption

  • Efficiency: Higher efficiency pumps can reduce energy costs over time.
  • Operating Costs: Consider long-term operating costs, including maintenance and energy consumption.

8. Material Compatibility

  • Construction Material: Ensure pump materials are compatible with the fluid to prevent degradation and contamination.
  • Seal and Gasket Material: Important for preventing leaks and ensuring longevity.

9. Installation and Maintenance

  • Ease of Installation: Some pumps are easier to install than others, which can affect labor costs and time.
  • Maintenance Requirements: Consider the frequency and complexity of maintenance tasks.

10. Environmental Conditions

  • Ambient Temperature: Extreme temperatures can affect pump performance and material choice.
  • Exposure to Elements: Pumps exposed to the elements may need weatherproofing or special housing.

11. Cost

  • Initial Cost: Budget constraints might influence the selection.
  • Total Cost of Ownership: Consider not just the purchase price but also installation, operating, and maintenance costs over the pump’s lifespan.

12. Regulatory and Safety Requirements

  • Compliance: Ensure the pump meets industry standards and regulations.
  • Safety Features: Depending on the application, additional safety features might be necessary.

By carefully evaluating these factors, you can select a pump that is well-suited to your specific needs, ensuring efficient and reliable operation.

Does The Fluid Hot (Usually If Temperature Above 30 C, It Is Considered Hot), Corrosive, Flammable, And/Or Harmful To Environment?

When selecting a pump for fluids that are hot, corrosive, flammable, and/or harmful to the environment, additional considerations must be taken into account to ensure safety, reliability, and compliance with regulations. Here are the key factors to consider for each of these fluid characteristics:

1. Hot Fluids (Temperature Above 30°C)

  • Material Selection: Use materials that can withstand high temperatures without degrading. Common materials include stainless steel, certain plastics, and high-temperature alloys.
  • Thermal Expansion: Consider the thermal expansion of pump components to avoid issues with fit and function.
  • Cooling Systems: Some pumps may require additional cooling systems to maintain operational temperatures within safe limits.
  • Insulation and Heat Resistance: Ensure that seals, gaskets, and other components can resist heat and prevent leaks.

2. Corrosive Fluids

  • Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Use materials such as stainless steel, Hastelloy, titanium, or specific polymers that resist corrosion.
  • Coatings and Linings: Pumps can be coated or lined with corrosion-resistant materials to extend their lifespan.
  • Seal Selection: Choose seals made from materials that can withstand the corrosive nature of the fluid, such as Viton, PTFE (Teflon), or Kalrez.

3. Flammable Fluids

  • Explosion-Proof Design: Use pumps designed to be explosion-proof, particularly in the motor and electrical components.
  • Grounding and Bonding: Ensure proper grounding and bonding to prevent static electricity buildup, which can ignite flammable fluids.
  • Non-Sparking Materials: Use materials that do not produce sparks upon contact or friction.
  • Containment Systems: Incorporate containment systems to manage leaks or spills safely.

4. Harmful to Environment

  • Leak Prevention: Utilize double seals, magnetic drive pumps, or canned motor pumps to minimize the risk of leaks.
  • Material Compatibility: Ensure that all materials in contact with the fluid are resistant to degradation and do not leach harmful substances.
  • Spill Containment: Design systems with spill containment measures, such as bunds or secondary containment areas.
  • Compliance with Regulations: Ensure that the pump and its installation comply with environmental regulations and standards to prevent contamination.

Additional Considerations for All Scenarios

  • Maintenance and Monitoring: Implement regular maintenance schedules and monitoring systems to detect issues early and prevent failures.
  • Certification and Standards: Ensure the pump meets industry-specific certifications and standards for handling hazardous fluids (e.g., ATEX, API, ANSI).
  • Training and Safety Procedures: Train personnel in the safe handling and operation of pumps dealing with hazardous fluids, and establish clear safety procedures.
What Are Pump Types That Are Commonly Available In The Market?

Basically, Pump Is Divided In 2 (Two) Categories:

  1. Dynamic

    The Principle Of Working Is To Continuously  Increase Fluid Velocity Within Pump Casing And Then To Convert The Velocity To Pressure At The Discharge Nozzle.

  1. Displacement

    The Principle Of Working Is To Add Energy Periodically To Increase Pressure

What Are Pump Applications And Services?

The Followings Are Common Pump Applications:

  1. Ash Handling
  2. Beer Dispensing
  3. Boiler Dispensing
  4. Boiler Feed Water
  5. Brewery Stuff
  6. Cargo Oil
  7. Cargo Stripping
  8. Cement Slurry
  9. Chemical Process
  10. Chemical Abrasive
  1. Coal Washing
  2. Concrete Handling
  3. Condensate Extraction
  4. Cooling Water
  5. Cryogenic
  6. Descalling
  7. Dredging
  8. Dry And Floating Docks
  9. Fire
  10. Fishery
  11. Flue Gas Desulphurisation
  12. Food And Beverages
  13. Garden Fountain
  14. Gravel/Sand
  15. Fuel Oil
  16. Grease/Lubricating Oil
  17. Hydraulic System
  18. Hydro-Pneumatic Water Booster
  19. Irrigation/Flood Control
  20. Laboratory
  21. Land Drainage
  22. Liquid Metals
  23. Machine Toollubricating
  24. Marine Bilge/Sewage/Ballast
  25. Mine Draining/Dewatering
  26. Mine Tailings
  27. Molasses
  28. Mud
  29. Multiphase
  30. Oil Burner/Fuel Injection
  31. Oil Extraction
  32. Oil Pipe Line
  33. Oil Transfer
  34. Paper Stock/Pulp
  35. Petrol/Light Fuel/Solvents
  36. Printer’s Ink
  37. Radioactive Liquid
  38. Sewage Raw/Sludge/Treated/Effluent
  39. Sewage Package Set
  40. Storm Water/Flood Control
  41. Shower Booster
  42. Sinking/Dewatering Wellpoint
  43. Slurry
  44. Sugar Beet
  45. Tannery Fleshing
  46. Tar And Liquor
  47. Water, Raw/Potable/Automatic/Domestic/Package Set
What Are Available Pump Seals?

There Are Various Type Of Pump Seals, Such As:

  1. Sealess, This Means The Pump Does Not Use Any Seal. Type Of Sealess Pumps Are

     1.1. Diaphragm Pump

     1.2. Magnetic Driven Pump

     1.3. Hermetic/Canned Motor Pump

     1.4. Vertical Line Shaft (There Is Seal In The Upper Shaft But This Seal Is Only

     To Prevent Vapor To Leak)

     1.5. Submersible Pump Running With Hydraulic Motor (This Is A Special

     Designed Pump)

  1. Single Mechanical Seal
  2. Double Mechanical Seal, Tandem Or Back-To-Back Arrangement
  3. Cartridge Seal, Single Or Double
  4. Packing Seal
  5. Labyrinth Seal
What Api Plans Are Available?


API PLAN 01: Integrated (internal) product recirculation from pump discharge to seal chamber.

API PLAN 02: Dead ended seal chamber with no flush fluid circulation.

API PLAN 03: Circulation between the seal chamber and pump is created by seal chamber design

API PLAN 11: Product recirculation from pump discharge to seal through a flow control orifice.

API PLAN 12: Product recirculation from pump discharge through a Y strainer and a flow control orifice to seal chamber.

API PLAN 13: Product recirculation from seal chamber to pump suction via a flow control orifice.

API PLAN 14: Product recirculation from pump discharge to seal chamber through a flow control orifice and seal chamber back to suction through another flow control orifice.

API PLAN 21: Product recirculation from discharge through flow control orifice and heat exchanger to seal chamber.

API PLAN 22: Product recirculation from pump discharge through a Y strainer, a flow control orifice and a heat exchanger to seal chamber.

API PLAN 23: Product recirculation from seal chamber to heat exchanger and back to seal chamber.

API PLAN 31: Product recirculation from discharge through a cyclone separator, which directs clean fluid to the seal and solids back to pump suction.

API PLAN 32: Injection of clean or cool liquid from external source into the seal chamber.

API PLAN 41: Product recirculation from discharge through a cyclone separator and a heat exchanger to seal chamber.

API PLAN 51: External reservoir providing a dead-ended blanket for fluid to the quench connection of the gland.

API PLAN 52: Depressurised buffer fluid circulation in outboard seal of a dual seal configuration through a seal support system. Circulation is maintained by using pumping ring in running condition and by thermosyphon effect in stand still condition.

API PLAN 53 A: Pressurised barrier fluid circulation in outboard seal of dual seal configuration through a seal support system. Circulation is maintained by using pumping ring in running condition and with thermosyphon effect in stand still condition.

API PLAN 53 B: Pressurised barrier fluid circulation in outboard seal of dual seal configuration. Circulation is maintained by using pumping ring in running condition and with thermosyphon effect in stand still condition. The pressure is maintained in the seal circuit by a bladder accumulator.

API PLAN 54: Pressurised external barrier fluid circulation from a central pressure source or by a stand alone pumping unit

What Is Net Positive Suction Head Available (Npsha)?

Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) is a measure of how much pressure is available at the pump’s suction side to ensure that the fluid can be pumped without causing cavitation. Cavitation is when the liquid turns into vapor bubbles and then collapses, which can damage the pump.

In simple terms, NPSHA tells us if there is enough pressure to keep the liquid from boiling when it enters the pump. This is important because if the pressure is too low, the pump can get damaged and won’t work efficiently.

To calculate NPSHA, we consider:

  1. Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure from the air on the liquid’s surface.
  2. Vapor Pressure: The pressure at which the liquid would start to boil.
  3. Static Head: The height difference between the liquid source and the pump.
  4. Friction Losses: Pressure lost due to the resistance in the pipes.

The formula looks like this: NPSHA=Atmospheric Pressure+Static Head−Vapor Pressure−Friction Losses\text{NPSHA} = \text{Atmospheric Pressure} + \text{Static Head} – \text{Vapor Pressure} – \text{Friction Losses}NPSHA=Atmospheric Pressure+Static Head−Vapor Pressure−Friction Losses

NPSHA must be higher than the pump’s required NPSH (NPSHR) to avoid cavitation.